Two things can be done - scrap off the texture or cover the ceiling with drywall/beadboard/tiles.
Vacuum them to get rid of the dust. Why can't they be painted?
You did not attach any photos to indicate how heavily your ceilings are textured, or their height, but many homes in PA were constructed with textured walls and ceilings which could be vacuumed using extension pieces and the soft brush, scrubbed 2x/year if needed, and easily painted with a napped roller, trim brush, roller extensions and ladders, if height warranted.
I had those textured ceilings with glitter in them. I just used a strong broom and swept a lot of the loose stuff off and painted them using a foam roller. It took a bit of time but I have fresh, white ceilings that look more up to date.
Why can't the ceiling be painted?