Here's a site with ideas for you: https://www.lawnmowerhut.com/15-fast-growing-climbers/
A hummingbird vine grows pretty quickly!
There are lots of vines that grow fast but some of it will depend on your area as to which will do best. You also want to take into account that some of these vines can be invasive and require a strong and diligent hand in keeping them where you want them. I have a Trumpet vine (hummingbird vine) and I love it but I made sure to plant it away from the house and I keep it severely trimmed. By that I mean that I mow off all suckers that come up in the yard (it travels by root suckers underground and loves moist areas.) You want to keep it away from structures as its little fingers (roots) that it uses to climb will get into your siding, facia and brick or stone mortar. Really did a job on my parents chimney. Wisteria is another beautiful vine but also has the same issues. Check online or with a garden center before you plant so that you don't have problems down the line.
also jasmine works and grows quickly too